There are many types of jobs in the medical profession and additional subcategories for medical professionals. The term ‘doctor’ is very general and a large majority of doctors are trained specially to deal with niche medical conditions and issues.

Here is an overview list of different doctor types and their medical expertise that you may not be familiar with:

Andrologist – this type of doctor specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the male reproductive system.

Endocrinologist – an endocrinologist treats patients who have disorders of the endocrine system including the thyroid or hormonal conditions.

Epidemiologist – this type of doctor deals with the study of diseases including the diagnosis and prevention of disease through methods like proper vaccinations.

Geriatrician – this type of doctor deals specifically with health conditions and diseases affecting the elderly.

Hematologist – a medical doctor skilled in the study and treatment of blood and its disorders and conditions.

Hepatologist – a doctor trained in the diseases and conditions affecting the liver.

Internist – a doctor that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of adult medical conditions and diseases.

Nephrologist – a medical doctor trained to deal with kidney diseases and provide treatment for chronic kidney conditions.

Oncologist – a specially trained doctor who provides treatment for patients inflicted with cancer.

Parasitologist – a doctor that studies parasites and the diseases which can be caused by parasitic activity.

Pulmonologist – a doctor trained to diagnose conditions of the lungs, including those on ventilator machines after traumatic accidents.

Rheumatologist – doctor that specializes in the diseases and conditions related to autoimmune disorders and allergic conditions.


With nearly 60 specialties in medicine, there are many other specialized doctor niches where medical professionals practice. Each requires different educational backgrounds and training. Many of these specialized doctors will work hand in hand with primary care physicians to provide an all-inclusive plan for treatment.